Show Notes Column
DateAuthorContributionReferenceCategoryPathogen Class 
-50VarroPostulated that invisible animalcules caused some diseases.ChaseCausationGeneralDetails
30ColumellaSpeculated that fever may be caused in some way by marsh insects.DowelMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1000AvicennaProbably recognized the presence of a worm in what became known as guinea-worm disease.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1010AvicennaWrote medical text that included mention of various parasitic worms.CampilloMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1150AvenzoarWrote a description of the itch mite.CampilloMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1200Anon.Described liver-rot in sheep, and the presence of a fluke.AndrewsMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1347Anon.Military attempts to spread bubonic plague illustrate belief in contagion.WallerMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1379BrieRecorded his observation of liver fluke in sheep.TouratierMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1546FracastoroWrote that diseases were caused by invisible seminaria (seeds).BullockCausationGeneralDetails
1646KircherTheorized that contagion was due to invisible living bodies.ChaseCausationGeneralDetails
1650HauptmannHeld that death results from invisible animalcules in body of humans and other animals.WilsonCausationGeneralDetails
1650LangiusAllegedly espoused idea of invisible living things as cause of syphilis.KoblerCausationGeneralDetails
1656BorelRecorded ideas about "worms" in blood and decaying matter, but without evidence.DowelMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1658KircherRecorded remarks which some have taken to imply discovery of protozoa or bacteria.DowelMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1665BoghurstHeld that plague was caused by many minute corpuscles.WilsonCausationGeneralDetails
1665DiemerbroeckSuggested that plague was a venom propagated like yeast, but in the air.WilsonCausationGeneralDetails
1665HookeDescribed a fossilized foraminiferan (large protozoon) in sand, and understood it as a microscopic life form.Bardell.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1668RediShowed that maggots did not develop in meat protected from flies.GroveMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1674LeeuwenhoekObserved and reported animalcules in lake water, and what were probably coccidian oocysts and trematode ova in mammalian bile.FosterMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1675LeeuwenhoekObserved and reported animalcules in rainwater, canal water, etc.GarrisonMicroscopyProtozoaDetails
1676LeeuwenhoekReported existence of free-living microorganisms that were probably bacteria.Brock (1961)MicroscopyBacteriaDetails
1680LeeuwenhoekObserved and recorded what were probably parasitic protozoa, in gut of horse-fly.FosterMicroscopyProtozoaDetails
1681LeeuwenhoekObserved and reported protozoa (Giardia) and bacteria in diarrheic human feces.FosterMicroscopyProtozoaDetails
1683Leeuwenhoeka. Reported the presence of protozoa and bacteria in the feces of frogs.FosterMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1683Leeuwenhoekb. Described microorganisms (probably bacteria) in the scurf of human teeth.Brock (1961)MicroscopyBacteriaDetails
1683SlareSlare (also called Slear) linked animalcules, theoretically, to cattle plague.DobellCausationGeneralDetails
1684AbercrombyProposed that syphilis was caused by a parasite.Garrison & MortonCausationGeneralDetails
1687BonomoReported parasitic (acarine) causation of scabies.GarrisonCausationGeneralDetails
1698BidlooReported eggs of liver-fluke, Fasciola hepatica.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1699HartsoekerPostulated transmission of intestinal worms by ingestion of eggs shed in feces.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1700AndryPublished book arguing that all parasitic worms came from seed (eggs) in the exteral environment.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1701AndryProposed microbial causation of disease.LeeMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1701RivinusWrote that most diseases were caused by mites and minute worms (pathologia animata).GarrisonCausationGeneralDetails
1708LeeuwenhoekObserved and reported microbes in "fur" scraped from human tongue during fever.DobelMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1710JoblotBoiled infusions remain free of microorganisms.LechevalierMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1718BradleyRecorded specificity of blight disease of plants.WilsonCausationFungiDetails
1718LancisiPostulated a role for the mosquito (and perhaps animalcules) in malaria.AckernechtMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1720MartenMarten (or Martin) published elaborate speculation that minute living creatures or animalcula may cause tuberculosis (phthisis).WilsonCausationGeneralDetails
1721Bradleya. Recorded elaborate speculation on causation of disease by air-borne organisms.WilsonCausationGeneralDetails
1721Bradleyb. Postulated that parasitic worms must enter the human body by inhalation or ingestion.WilsonMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1725VallisnieriEspoused idea of animate contagion.WilsonCausationGeneralDetails
1727HalesSuggested transmission of hop mildew by small seeds.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1728duHamelFound fungus causing root disease of safron plant.ParrisCausationFungiDetails
1733VallisnieriReintroduced concept of living contagion.WilsonCausationGeneralDetails
1743NeedhamDiscovered that grains of smutty wheat consisted of masses of worms.ParrisCausationHelminthsDetails
1748ArderonPublished illustration of superficial fungal infection on fish.AinsworthMiscellanyFungiDetails
1748NeedhamReported experiments in support of doctrine of spontaneous generation.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1755TilletReported experimental evidence of the contagiousness of wheat bunt.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1755WeszpremiProposed prevention of plague by inoculation.GarrisonImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1761AstrucReported, but dismissed, the theories of others concerning causation of syphilis by invisible living things.KoblerCausationGeneralDetails
1762PlencizProposed living contagion with a specific verminous seed for each disease.GarrisonCausationGeneralDetails
1766SpallanzaniReported absence of animalcules in heated, sealed infusions.GroveMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1767ClarkeContagiousness of puerperal fever.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1767FontanaReported microscopic plant as cause of rust in wheat.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1767LinnaeusRecorded parasitic nematode in wheat disease.ParrisCausationHelminthsDetails
1767Targioni-TozzettiReported microscopic plant as cause of rust in wheat.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1774JestyBegan inoculation with cow-pox to prevent smallpox.GarrisonImmunologyVirusesDetails
1775Anon.Plant Virola sp. used by natives of French Guiana to treat thrush.JoyceMiscellanyFungiDetails
1777ScopoliRecorded parasitic nematode in cereal disease.ParrisCausationHelminthsDetails
1781PallasReported an attempt to infect dogs with tapeworm by parenteral injection of tapeworm eggs.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1782BlochPublished detailed arguments in support of Spontaneous Generation for parasitic worms.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1782GoezePublished arguments in support of Spontaneous Generation in parasitic worms.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1786WichmannDiscussed parasitic origin of scabies.GarrisonCausationGeneralDetails
1790AbildgaardReported tapeworm in ducks ater feeding them the intermediate host (fish) harboring the larval stage.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1791PlettUsed cowpox inoculation to prevent smallpox.GarrisonCausationVirusesDetails
1798JennerReported the use of cowpox inoculation for the prevention of smallpox in humans.Brock (1961)ImmunologyVirusesDetails
1799SteinbuchRecorded parasitic nematodes in disease of grain.ParrisCausationHelminthsDetails
1800Anon.Many attempts in early years of Century to make achromatic objectives.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1800CruikshankPurified water by chlorination in England.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1800GoochContagiousness of puerperal fever.CarterCausationBacteriaDetails
1800JennerPublished claim that cowpox vaccination had been validated and had the potential to eradicate smallpox from the world.Anon.ImmunologyVirusesDetails
1800MoreauPurified water by chlorination in France.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1800OrthProposed, in about this year, the contagiousness of puerperal fever.CarterCausationBacteriaDetails
1800WaterhouseIntroduced vaccination to New England.GarrisonImmunologyGeneralDetails
1801BaudPublicized organic concept of fermentation.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1802Anon.British government ordered measures to protect welfare of factory apprentices.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1802Anon.Gave dramatic example of epidemic devastation.McNeillMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1802Anon.Vaccination institute founded in Berlin.Anon.ImmunologyGeneralDetails
1802BrownVaccinated 500 people in Kentucky.McNeillImmunologyGeneralDetails
1802PinelPublished Nosographie philosophique.BullockMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1802ThenardDescribed yeast-like substance in fruit juice fermentation.LechevalierMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1803Anon.Doctors from Spain reached Mexico to teach vaccinationMcNeillImmunologyGeneralDetails
1803Anon.Offered prize for fermentation work.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1803WinterbottomDescribed sleeping sickness in West Africa.MajorMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1804ZinkeReported first experimental transmission of rabies from animal to animal (dog to rabbit).NormanCausationVirusesDetails
1805Anon.Used Jenner's smallpox vaccine on people near the Chinese border.Anon.ImmunologyGeneralDetails
1805NapoleonOrdered vaccination of all troops.McNeillImmunologyGeneralDetails
1806MalthusWarned against smallpox vaccination.Garrison & MortonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1807Anon.Doctors from Spain moved on from Mexico to Philipines to teach vaccination.McNeillImmunologyGeneralDetails
1807Anon.Royal College of Physicians (Britain) declared vaccination safer than variolation.Anon.ImmunologyGeneralDetails
1807Anon.Vaccination made compulsory in Bavaria.Anon.ImmunologyGeneralDetails
1807PrevostReported that bunt or smut of wheat was caused by microscopic "spores" of fungi.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1807van DeylMade achromatic objective.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1808GaspardBegan injecting putrid materials and body fluids into animals, causing acute disease and death.NormanCausationGeneralDetails
1808MarzoliBegan making achromatic lenses, using cemented doublets.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1809Anon.Invention of canning for food preservation; sterilization without germ theory.McNeillMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1810Anon.Vaccination made compulsory in Sweden.Anon.ImmunologyGeneralDetails
1810AppertBook on preservation of meat and vegetables by heating to boiling temperature in sealed bottles.NormanMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1810FrauenhoferAt approximately this time, made achromatic objectives by combining achromatic doublets.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1810Gay-LussacReported results of his studies on the chemistry of fermentation.BullockMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1810RudolphiPublished book supporting spontaneous generation of parasitic worms.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1811BrewsterSuggested the use of gem stones in making simple microscopes, because of their higher refractive index.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1812Anon.Pamphlets on vaccination distributed by Russian authorities to distant territories such as Samerkand.McNeillImmunologyGeneralDetails
1812Anon.The Society of Apothecaries unsuccessfully petitioned the British Parliament for the official recognition of midwives.WilliamsMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1812ParkinsonPublished first report in English of death resulting from a perforated appendix.NormanMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1812WollastonImproved the simple microscope.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1813BrewsterSuggested immersion of front element of objective in the fluid in which the object is placed.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1813KnightSuggested that mildew or rust of wheat was caused by a "minute species of parasitical fungus."DoetschCausationFungiDetails
1814MeaseReported observations on natural transmission of Texas Cattle Fever.RoncalliCausationGeneralDetails
1815MayerWith Emmett, reported a fungal infection (apparently aspergillosis) in a bird.RipponCausationFungiDetails
1816Anon.In 1816-18 British troops carried cholera to Afghanistan and Nepal.McNeillMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1816ScholerTransmitted rust from barberry bush to rye by inoculation of spores.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1817Anon.Cholera breaks out of India, due to new transport routes.McNeillMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1817NitzschSaw resemblance between cercariae and trematodes.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1817PelletierIsolated emetine as active alkyloid of ipecac.NormanMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1818BojanusObserved that cercariae come from rediae within snails.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1819Anon.Official is abused for diagnosing Yellow Fever.RosenbergMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1819BizioSaid that red spots on corn mush were masses of microscopic fungi. Named them Serratia marcescens.ChaseMiscellanyFungiDetails
1819BremserPublished book supporting spontaneous generation of parasitic worms.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1819MeloConcluded that red spots on corn mush were not supernatural, but rather the result of fermentation.ChaseMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1819RudolphiDescribed larvae of Drancunculus.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1820Anon.From this time on, glass slides of approximately 3" x 1" began to replace other bases for object preparation.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1820BancksMade an advanced simple microscope.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1820PelletierWith Caventou, isolated quinine from cinchona.NormanMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1821AmiciMade first effective achromatic microscope.CollardMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1821Anon.British troops spread cholera to S. Arabia, while trying to suppress slavery.McNeillMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1821BretonneauPresented oral reports on the specificity of diseases such as diphtheria and typhoid.BullockMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1821MagendieUsed saliva of a human rabies case to transmit rabies to dogs.Anon.CausationVirusesDetails
1821SchillingTransmitted glanders to humans.GarrisonCausationGeneralDetails
1822AcerbiReported his view that typhus is caused by parasites (hypothetical) multiplying in body.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1822Anon.French experts studied Yellow Fever outbreak in Barcelona.McNeillMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1822PersoonGave name "mycoderma" (fungal skin) to the "skin" formed on the surface of a liquid when vinegar is produced.LechevalierMiscellanyFungiDetails
1823MagendieReported lethal effect of putrid blood when given intravenously but not orally.Anon.CausationGeneralDetails
1824AmiciMade achromatic objectives, using the Selligue approach.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1824GaspardPublished results (also in 1822) of injecting putrid materials (e.g., pus) and body fluids into animals, by various routes.Garrison & MortonCausationGeneralDetails
1824PritchardMade a lens of diamond (at the suggestion of Goring).BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1824SelligueDesigned objective consisting of a series of four achromatic doublets.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1825BarthelemyShowed that anthrax was transmissible by inoculation in a series of sheep.JoklikCausationGeneralDetails
1825ChevallierMade objectives of Selligue type, but with the flat surface of the plano-concave lens facing the object.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1825CoplandUsed potassium iodide in syphilis.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1825GoringIntroduced the use of standard test objects for comparing performance of objectives.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1825LabarraqueUsed sodium hypochlorite and other chemicals to prevent putrefaction of corpses.LechevalierMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1825LouisPublished important work on tuberculosis, but without knowledge of its etiology.Garrison & MortonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1826Anon.New cholera epidemic out of India.McNeillMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1826BretonneauDescribed and named diphtheria.MajorMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1826DesmazieresDescribed and illustrated yeast cells (the Mycoderma spp. of Persoon).LechevalierMiscellanyFungiDetails
1826LaennecMaintained unity of scrofula and tuberculosis.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1826SmithMade achromatic microscope for Lister.FordMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1826TulleyMade an exceptional microscope with an achromatic objective.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1827AmiciProduced improved objective by new approach (resulting from work begun in 1824).BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1827BrownStudied the motion of microscopic particles of animal, vegetable and mineral origin.AsimovMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1827DesmazieresConsidered yeast an infusarian because of motion.LechevalierMiscellanyFungiDetails
1828AnnersleyRecognized and described amebic dysentery.Anon.MiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1828ChadwickWrote essay setting out what he later called his "sanitary idea."ChaseMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1828DanceReported experiments on the pathogenicity of putrid materials when injected.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1829AlibertDescribed pustule d'Alep, the characteristic lesion of cutaneous leishmaniasis.GarrisonMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1829CoddingtonImproved the simple microscope by reducing the spherical aberration, but at the cost of decreased aperture.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1829CreplinConfirmed 1790 report that birds acquire tapeworm by eating fish harboring the larvae.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1829EhrenbergBegan his study of microorganisms.DoetschMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1829ListerPublished his mathematical principles for designing lenses with better correction of aberration.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1829LouisWrote on typhoid fever and gave it that name.NormanMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1829RhindOpposed spontaneous generation of parasitic worms.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1829SimpsonMade first municipal water filter.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1829WollastonImproved the simple microscope beyond his advance of 1812.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1830Anon.About this time the new achromatic objectives were making it necessary to use long microscope tubes.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1830Anon.Beginning of rapid decline (1830 - 50) in status of American medical profession.RosenbergMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1830Anon.Popularized glass microscope slides.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1830ChevalierImproved the simple microscope.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1830EhrenbergDiscovered Bacterium termo.GarrisonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1830KaehlerWith Alms, discovered santonin for treatment of parasitic worms.GarrisonMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1830ListerDescribed mathematics of achromatic lens.BradburyMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1831Anon.Cholera to Mecca at time of pilgrimage.McNeillMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1831Anon.Epidemic cholera in Europe.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1831HenrySterilized fomites of scarlatina victims by heat, 200 F.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1831MehlisSaw miracidia emerging from trematode eggs.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1831PerkinsIntroduced high-pressure hot water for sterilization.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1832Anon.Cholera carried to Ireland, then Canada, then U.S.A.McNeillMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1832Anon.Introduced British quarantine vs. cholera.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1832BigelowPromoted sanitary measures to control a major outbreak of cholera.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1832BrownUsed a single lens to observe the cell "nucleus."Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1833Anon.Cholera spreads from U.S.A. to Mexico.McNeillMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1833BassiReported evidence of infectious nature of silkworm disease (muscardine).Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1833CaryMade microscope intermediate between simple and compound types.FordMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1833UngerPublished claim that parasitic fungi of plants arise from morbid sap.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1834BassiDemonstrated infectious nature of a disease of silkworms.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1834HornerReported that stools in cholera contained epithelial tissue sloughed from small intestine, but did not report seeing bacteria.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1834KutzingApparently saw yeast cells and realized that they were living.Anon.MiscellanyFungiDetails
1834RemakReported filaments resembling a mold in material from the favus variety of ringworm.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1834RungeIsolated carbolic acid.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1835Anon.Vaccination of infants made compulsory in England and Wales.SchreiberImmunologyGeneralDetails
1835BassiPublished fungal causation of muscardine of silkworms.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1835Cagniard-LatourReported the living nature of yeast.GarrisonMiscellanyFungiDetails
1835OberhauserDeveloped an improved drum microscope.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1835OwenDescribed Trichinella spiralis in human muscle.Garrison & MortonMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1835PagetReported discovery of Trichinella spiralis in human flesh.NormanMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1835WollastonMade improved achromatic triplet lens.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1836Cagniard-LatourObserved that beer yeast contained budding globules.NormanMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1836DonnéReported Trichomonas vaginalis in male and female reproductive tract.NormanCausationProtozoaDetails
1836FliednerOpened hospital in Kaiserwerth, Germany, with religious deaconesses as nurses.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1836SchulzeReported that the development of microorganisms in sterile organic matter can be prevented by chemical treatment of incoming air.LechevalierMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1836SchwannShowed microbial nature of putrefaction.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1837AmiciIntroduced the hemispherical front lens in the construction of objectives for the compound microscope.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1837Cagniard-LatourProposed that alcoholic fermentation was due to the vital action of the yeast.LechevalierMiscellanyFungiDetails
1837ChadwickReported average life expectancy of 45 years.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1837DonnéReported further observations on Trichomonas vaginalis.KeanCausationProtozoaDetails
1837GerhardDistinguished between typhus and typhoid (such clinical refinement later becoming helpful in establishing the germ theory).GarrisonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1837GerhardMade definite separation of typhus and typhoid, getting it accepted at least in the United States.NormanMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1837Kutzinga. Described and illustrated yeast cells, and proposed that all fermentations are vital processes.LechevalierMiscellanyFungiDetails
1837Kutzingb. Reported connection between life in "mother of vinegar" and production of vinegar.AinsworthMiscellanyFungiDetails
1837Kutzingc. Reported that yeast cells are pleomorphic.BullockMiscellanyFungiDetails
1837PiorryCoined "septicoemie" (now septiemia) for putrid intoxication.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1837RayerInoculation of glanders; shown to be contagious.NormanCausationBacteriaDetails
1837RemakSaw fungal filaments in favus but did not consider them the cause.LechevalierMiscellanyFungiDetails
1837RossBegan making achromatic microscope objectives by Lister's formulas.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1837SchwannReported role of living yeast cells in putrefaction and fermentation.BullockMiscellanyFungiDetails
1837SchwannThe development of microorganisms in sterile organic matter can be prevented by heating incoming air.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1838Cagniard-LatourReported (independently) role of living yeast cells in alcoholic fermentation.BrockMiscellanyFungiDetails
1838EhrenbergPublished major illustrated treatise on "infusoria," including protozoa and bacteria.GarrisonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1838RicordCorrected John Hunter in showing that syphilis and gonorrhea are separate diseases.NormanMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1838RossMade an objective that provided correction for the thickness of cover slips.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1839BuddProposed, in an essay, that typhoid fever was contagious and was spread by contaminated water.CirilloCausationBacteriaDetails
1839HakePublished description of what were probably coccidial oocysts in rabbit liver.DobellMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1839LagenbeckReported a cryptogamic plant (fungus) in human thrush, but did not postulate causation.Anon.MiscellanyFungiDetails
1839OwenBecame first president of the Microscopical Society of London.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1839PurkinjeIntroduced microtome, Canada balsam and other elements of standard microscopical technique.GarrisonMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1839Ross, A.Introduced the "Lister-limb" construction of microscopes.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1839SchonleinReported fungus Achorion in favus of scalp in group of patients.NormanCausationFungiDetails
1839SchonleinSeparated and named typhus abdominalis and typhus exanthematicus.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1840Anon.Achromatic objectives achieved major impact, 1830 - 1850.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1840Anon.Microscopists used thin glass cover-slips to cover objects on microscope slides.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1840Anon.Variolation declared to be a felony in Britain.GarrisonImmunologyGeneralDetails
1840BuehlmannRediscovered fungus Leptothrix [Leptotrichia].BullockMiscellanyFungiDetails
1840CarterReported Streptobacillus monoliformis as cause of rat-bit fever.LeeCausationBacteriaDetails
1840FarrPromoted the "hypothesis" that epidemic diseases are caused by minute organisms carried from person to person by air.ChaseCausationBacteriaDetails
1840FryFounded a religious nursing order, which promoted hygiene, without knowledge of germs.FisherMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1840HenlePropounded a persuasive germ theory but failed to find germs.Garrison & MortonCausationGeneralDetails
1840RobertonPresented clinical evidence of the contagiousness of puerperal fever.GrahamCausationBacteriaDetails
1841BergDemonstrated the fungal etiology of thrush.Garrison & MortonCausationFungiDetails
1841DubiniDiscovered hookworm in miners.NormanCausationHelminthsDetails
1841DujardinPublished major treatise on micro-organisms.Garrison & MortonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1841EschrichtWrote that asexual parasites such as Trichinella [muscle stage] must be regarded as immature or larval forms.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1841GrubyReported fungal elements in favus (tinea).NormanCausationFungiDetails
1841HolmesPreached contagiousness of puerperal fever, and transmission by medical personnel.MagnerMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1841Muller, J.Described psorospermosis.Anon.MiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1841ValentinRecorded the presence of protozoa, now called trypanosomes, in the blood of fish.Garrison & MortonMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1842BennettReported the fungus Geotrichum infecting an old tuberculous cavity in a human.Anon.MiscellanyFungiDetails
1842BergFound fungal agent of thrush (now Candida albicans).AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1842ChadwickIssued major indictment of unsanitary conditions in British industrial slums.NormanMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1842GoodsirReported bacteria in human stomach (sarcinae, i.e., Sarcina, Coccaceae).Garrison & MortonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1842GrubyDescribed fungus as cause of "muguet" (thrush) of children.NormanCausationFungiDetails
1842MullerWith Retzius, found mold Mucor in lungs of owl.BullockMiscellanyFungiDetails
1842RemakUsed Schonlein's fungus to induce favus on self.LongMiscellanyFungiDetails
1842SteenstrupPublished theory of Alternation of Generations, based in part on the life cycle of parasitic worms.Garrison & MortonMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1843BuskFound adult Fasciolopsis in human intestine.Garrison & MortonMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1843DubiniReported discovery of hookworm in humans.NormanCausationHelminthsDetails
1843GrubyDescribed the fungus Microsporum audouini in a type of ringworm.NormanCausationFungiDetails
1843HolmesProclaimed contagiousness of puerperal fever.NormanCausationGeneralDetails
1843KlenckeObtained experimental evidence for the transmission of tuberculosis by cow's milk.Garrison & MortonCausationGeneralDetails
1843RossIntroduced the "bar-limb" construction of microscopes.FordMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1844AmiciMade an achromatic objective with 1/7" focal length and angular aperture of 112 degrees (equals numerical aperture of 0.83).BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1844BassiUsed calcium chloride as an area disinfectant to control muscardine (fungus) in silkworms.LechevalierCausationFungiDetails
1844BennettDemonstrated the fungal etiology of thrush (mucocutaneous candidiasis).RipponCausationFungiDetails
1844BennettFound mold in pneumothorax.BullockMiscellanyFungiDetails
1844DanielssenInoculated himself and others to show non-infectious nature of leprosy.NormanCausationGeneralDetails
1844GrubyFound fungus, later called Trichophyton, in head infection.BullockCausationFungiDetails
1844MayerFound mold, Mucor, in inner ear.BullockMiscellanyFungiDetails
1845BerkeleyReported fungus as cause of potato blight.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1845BuddAccepted parasitic cause of a liver disease.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1845DonnéPublished engraving of first photomicrograph of a microbial pathogen.CampbellMicroscopyProtozoaDetails
1845DujardinRecorded the similarity between the scolex of porcine cysticerci and the head ot adult tapeworms (Taenia) from humans.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1845MontagneDescribed and named fungus of potato blight.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1845SieboldPublished his conclusion that protozoa were single-celled animals.Anon.MiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1846BerkeleyPublished fungal causation of potato blight.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1846EickstedReported fungal etiology of pityriasis versicolor of human skin.RipponCausationFungiDetails
1846LeidyFound Trichinella larvae in pork.CampbellCausationHelminthsDetails
1846NorbertIntroduced test plate of ruled lines.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1846PanumShowed transmissibility of measles.NormanCausationVirusesDetails
1846RasoriRecorded hypothesis that malaria is caused by parasites.Bruce-ChwattCausationProtozoaDetails
1847CallenderReduced mortality from post-operative infections by instituting hygienic measures.WallerMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1847DanielssenWith Boeck, published landmark treatise on leprosy.MangeCausationBacteriaDetails
1847DempsterUsed spleen enlargement as index in assessing malaria endemicity in children.Bruce-ChwattMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1847FujiiDescribed human syndrome known as Katayama disease, subsequently found to be schistosomiasis.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1847MeckelObserved black pigment inside protoplasmic masses in blood of fatal case of malaria.HarrisonMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1847SemmelweisReduced deaths from puerperal (childbed) fever by instituting disinfection of physicians' hands.NormanCausationGeneralDetails
1847Sluytera. Found fungus Microsporon furfur (later Trichophyton) in skin.BullockCausationFungiDetails
1847Sluyterb. Reported Aspergillus infection in the human respiratory tract.Anon.MiscellanyFungiDetails
1847Sluyterc. Reported fungal etiology of pityriasis versicolor of human skin.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1847SpencerDeveloped achromatic objective to a new standard of excellence.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1847TulasneReported evidence of fungal causation of plant diseases.ParrisCausationFungiDetails
1848BerkeleyStated that many plant diseases are caused by fungi.ParrisCausationFungiDetails
1848BlackwellAdvocated personal hygiene in disease prevention.WilsonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1848ChadwickMasterminded passage of the Public Health Act in Britain.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1848NottPublished papers often cited, inaccurately, as proposing insects as vectors of disease.CherninMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1848PasteurDiscovered chirality of optically active compounds.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1848PollanderFound bacillus in blood of animals dying of anthrax.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1848VirchowWith Frerichs, recognized connection between black pigmentation of internal organs and death from malaria.Bruce-ChwattMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1849BrittanReported fungus, erroneously, in cholera.BullockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1849Budda. Reported objects thought to be fungus in cholera.BullockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1849Buddb. Reported evidence of link between cholera and drinking water.DoetschCausationBacteriaDetails
1849GrosObserved amoebae around teeth in humans.NormanCausationProtozoaDetails
1849NageliLumped the colorless infusoria together in (a new?) group Schizomyces.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1849PollenderObserved micro-organisms in blood of cows that had died from anthrax.NormanCausationBacteriaDetails
1849PouchetReported animalcules (vibrios) in cholera.BullockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1849SnowEssays on cholera, stating that it is water-borne, and transmitted by mouth.NormanCausationBacteriaDetails
1849SwayneReported fungus in cholera (later discredited).BullockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1849WilkinsonRecognized the fungal (epiphyte) nature of a vaginal discharge (candidiasis).RipponCausationFungiDetails
1850CohnReported study on the pigment-producing (red) bacterium Monas prodigiosa.DoetschMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1850DavaineSaw bacillus in blood of sheep dead from anthrax.LongCausationBacteriaDetails
1850FresniusReported a fungus infection in the air sac of birds.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1850GilletIntroduced the achromatic condenser lens.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1850RayerReported elongated bodies (rods) in blood of sheep dead of anthrax.NormanCausationBacteriaDetails
1850SemmelweisPublished his use of a disinfectant to prevent human disease.Brock (1961)MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1851Anon.Debated contagion vs. miasma, at the first International Health Conference.Anon.CausationGeneralDetails
1851BilharzReported discovery of a dioecious trematode (Schistosoma) in portal blood of humans.Garrison & MortonMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1851HerbstReported infecting dogs with Trichinella by feeding infected meat.CampbellCausationHelminthsDetails
1851KuchenmeisterInfected foxes with Taenia pisiformis by feeding them Cysticercus pisiformis from rabbit.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1852BilharzReported that hookworm was cause of Egyptian chlorosis.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1852KuchenmeisterReported infecting cat with Taenia taeniaeformis by feeding Cysticercus fasciolaris from mice.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1852PertyPublished work on microbes, with revised classification.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1852SnowArgued for germ causation of cholera.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1853Auzias-TurenneAdvocated vaccination against syphilis, and stressed variation in microbial virulence.WilliamsImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1853CohnReported observations on micro-organisms in drinking water.DoetschMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1853KuchenmeisterReported infection of dogs with Taenia spp. after feeding them cystic tapeworms.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1853RobinDescribed fungal parasites of humans and other animals, but did not fully accept their role in causation of disease.RipponMiscellanyFungiDetails
1853SieboldReported infection of dogs with Echinococcus after feeding them hydatid cysts from sheep.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1854BechampBegan study of the chemistry of sugar fermentation.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1854BenedenReported that feeding Taenia solium eggs to a pig resulted in cycticerci in muscles.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1854CohnPublished book on microscopic algae & fungi; proposed that bacteria (Vibrionia) be classified as plants instead of animals.LechevalierMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1854GraefeReported an actinomycete as the causative agent of inflammation of the human tear duct (canaliculitis).Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1854Griesingera. Reported pathogenesis of schistosomiasis.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1854Griesingerb. Reported hookworm as cause of fatal blood loss.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1854HassallReported myriads of microbes in watery stools of cholera victims.ChaseMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1854KuchenmeisterReported tapeworm infection in a human following ingestion of larvae from pork.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1854MouartPublished a report on the ancient Asian use of chaulmoogra oil in the treatment of leprosy.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1854PaciniDiscovered microorganisms in intestines of cholera victims and proposed causation.ChaseCausationBacteriaDetails
1854RidellIntroduced a binocular microscope.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1854SchroederWith von Dusch, reported that the development of microorganisms in sterile organic matter can be prevented by passing incoming air through cotton wool.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1854SnowReported epidemiological evidence of water as carrier of cholera.NormanCausationBacteriaDetails
1854WhiteheadInvestigated cholera transmission and provided crucial support for Snow's theory of transmission by drinking water.JohnsonCausationBacteriaDetails
1855AmiciExhibited immersion lenses, using water, glycerine or oils as the fluid medium.Bradbury.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1855GerlachIntroduced ammoniated carmine as a histological stain.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1855HumbertInfected himself with pork tapeworm, confirming cysticercus as infective stage.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1855PasteurShowed that crude alcohol from beet was not optically same as from molasses.GeisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1855PollanderReported micro-organisms in blood, and especially spleen, of cows dead of anthrax.NormanCausationBacteriaDetails
1855ValetteReported infectivity of trematode cercariae following encystment.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1855WenhamMade a much improved correction collar for cover slip thickness.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1856BettingerReported (annomymously) the inoculability of syphilis.NormanCausationBacteriaDetails
1856HoeghInitiated an influential Leprosy Registry in Norway.IrgensMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1856PanumReported lethal effect of injecting putrid blood, muscle etc. into dogs.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1856PerkinSynthesized the first aniline dye (purple).GarrisonMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1856VirchowReported that "pigeon-handler's disease" is caused by a respiratory fungal infection (aspergillosis).AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1857BrauellUsing infected blood, transmitted anthrax from human to sheep, and horse to horse.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1857KuehnFound nematode parasitic in teasle plant (Dipsacus).ParrisCausationHelminthsDetails
1857LeuckartDescribed life cycle of Trichinella spiralis, a parasitic nematode.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1857MalmstenReported Balantidium coli as pathogenic in human intestine.GarrisonCausationProtozoaDetails
1857NageliCoined Schizomycetes (fission fungi) for bacteria and other micro-organisms.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1857NageliDescribed cells in silkworm disease as Nosema bombycis.Anon.CausationGeneralDetails
1857Pasteura. Claimed specific ferments as cause of particular fermentations.CarterMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1857Pasteurb. Showed that milk microbes make lactic acid.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1857SpeerschneiderDemonstrated contagiousness of potato blight fungus.ParrisCausationFungiDetails
1858BechampReported results of studies on fermentation of cane sugar.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1858BrauellReported further studies on transmission of anthrax in sheep.CarterCausationBacteriaDetails
1858DockerReintroduced ipecac for dysentery.GarrisonMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1858HoeghConcluded that leprosy is contagious not hereditary.MangeCausationBacteriaDetails
1858KuehnPublished book on fungal diseases of plants.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1858PasteurSaw microbes in spoiled wine.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1859Auzias-TurenneWith Gilbert, infected patients by inoculating them with pus from secondary syphilis.DracoblyCausationBacteriaDetails
1859BazalgetteBegan construction of major sewerage system in London, to reduce disease attributed either to stench or to water-borne agent.HallidayMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1859BrehmerOpened first TB sanitarium.GarrisonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1859HartnackBegan making water-immersion lenses.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1859HomanWith Hartwig, traced transmission of dysentery.KobroCausationGeneralDetails
1859PasteurExpressed the opinion that the causes of contagious diseases are similar to the causes of fermentation.Vallery-RadotCausationGeneralDetails
1859PouchetPublished book supporting concept of spontaneous generation, eliciting critical counter argument for germ theory.GeisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1859SchachtReported nematode as cause of serious disease of sugar beet.ParrisCausationHelminthsDetails
1859VirchowInfected dog with Trichinella and discovered the adult worm in small intestine.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1860CarterCoined mycetoma for tumors caused by fungi.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1860DelafondStudied rods found in anthrax, and tried to culture them.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1860LemaireProposed treatment of wounds with carbolic acid to kill germs.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1860NightingaleFounded Nightingale Training School for Nurses; opposed Germ Theory until her death.FisherMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1860PasteurPublished major paper on role of living organisms in alcoholic fermentation.LechevalierMiscellanyFungiDetails
1860WenhamIntroduced a binocular microscope.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1860ZenkerFound overwhelming evidence that microscopic worms (Trichinella spiralis) caused fatal muscle disease in one case.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1861BaryEstablished fungal causation of potato blight.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1861Pasteura. Reported that some organisms can live without oxygen (anaerobic fermentation).CarterMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1861Pasteurb. Published classic paper on germs in air.CarterCausationBacteriaDetails
1861Pasteurc. Reported that specific microbes are responsible for specific fermentations.CarterMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1861SemmelweisPublished book on prevention of puerperal fever.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1862DavaineReported infectivity of helminth eggs.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1862DelafondWith Bourguignon, reported studies on newly discovered mites of sheep and rabbits.TouratierCausationGeneralDetails
1862LeuckartFound beef tapeworm, Taenia saginata, in calves fed Cysticercus bovis.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1862MayrhoferApplied isolation and re-inoculation techniques.CarterCausationGeneralDetails
1862SalisburyAttempted to show that fungi (molds in the environment) caused diseases such as measles and malaria.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1863BaryReported definitive study of fungal causation of potato blight.ParrisCausationFungiDetails
1863BechampSynthesized arsenilic acid, precursor of the antimicrobial agent atoxyl.CollardMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1863BottiniUsed phenol as an antiseptic in surgery.LechevalierMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1863Davainea. Reported evidence of the bacterial causation of anthrax in sheep.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1863Davaineb. Reported that anthrax blood was non-infective after heating at 55 C for 10 min.GeisonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1863DemarquayReported the presence of filarial larvae in swelling of scrotum of human.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1863FreseniusUsed potato as a solid medium for microbial growth.GarrisonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1863Pasteura. Reported that putrefaction is caused by organized ferments of genus Vibrio.BullockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1863Pasteurb. Published first report on wine spoilage.CarterMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1863Pasteurc. Wrote letter to Napoleon III expressing interest in finding cause of infectious diseases.CollardCausationGeneralDetails
1864BechampIntroduced the term "zymase" (now enzyme).Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1864BuddDemonstrate efficacy of disinfectants in control of typhoid fever.CirilloMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1864Pasteura. Associated a (vegetable) ferment with a wine "maladie".CarterMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1864Pasteurb. Lectured in opposition to theory of spontaneous generation.GeisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1864SteinheilIntroduced improved triplet lens for the simple microscope.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1864WeberReported results of injecting putrid fluids into animals.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1864WellsProposed that air-borne microscopic organisms cause post-surgical wound infecton and sepsis.WorboysCausationBacteriaDetails
1865BohmerIntroduced haematoxylin as a "dye" in microscopy.FordMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1865GamgeeAdvocated contagion-based control of rinderpest.Anon.CausationGeneralDetails
1865HallierAlleged fungal cause of diseases.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1865HomanWith Hartwig, traced transmission of typhoid.KobroCausationGeneralDetails
1865HuppertPublished review on anthrax literature, claiming that Davaine had shown causality.CarterCausationBacteriaDetails
1865LemaireProposed carbolic acid as disinfectant for wounds.BullockMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1865LeuckartShowed that pinworm (Enterobius) infection resulted from swallowing eggs of the parasite.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1865ListerBegan using antiseptic to prevent wound infection in surgery.Garrison & MortonCausationBacteriaDetails
1865LoweAdvocated contagion-based control of rinderpest.Anon.CausationGeneralDetails
1865Pasteura. Saw "corpuscular bodies" in silkworm disease.BullockMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1865Pasteurb. Commented on anthrax vaccine of colleagues.CarterImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1865Pasteurc. Presented oral paper on inhibition of microbial growt by pasteurization.DebréMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1865PowellWith Lealand, introduced a binocular microscope suitable for high magnification.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1865SimonAdvocated contagion-based control of rinderpest.BullockCausationGeneralDetails
1865SimondsAdvocated contagion-based control of rinderpest (cattle plague).Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1865VilleminShowed (1865-69) that tuberculosis was due to an (unseen) inoculable agent.LechevalierCausationBacteriaDetails
1866BrauellArgued that the literature opposed rather than supported bacteria as cause of anthrax.CarterCausationBacteriaDetails
1866CozeWith Feltz, published first of a series of papers linking bacteria to putrid blood.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1866GriesingerShowed that hookworm is a cause of disease in humans.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1866HemmerReported results of injecting pus and other putrid fluids into cats and rabbits.Anon.CausationGeneralDetails
1866KolbFound bacteria in cholera stool.DoetschCausationBacteriaDetails
1866Pasteura. Published book on wine diseases.CarterMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1866Pasteurb. Reported transmission of silkworm disease by means of corpuscles.CarterCausationGeneralDetails
1866WoroninConcluded (erroneously, because of knowledge then available) that bacteria in plant root nodules were pathogenic.LechevalierCausationBacteriaDetails
1866WuchererConfirmed Griesinger's finding that hookworm causes tropical anemia.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1867BuhlSaw microbes in diphtheriaBullochCausationBacteriaDetails
1867LeydenWith Jaffe, implicated microbes in sepsis.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1867ListerReported use of carbolic acid to prevent wound infection in surgery.Brock (1961)CausationBacteriaDetails
1867MercetTransmissibility of tuberculosis.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1867PasteurReported that silkworm deaths were attributable to two diseases.CarterCausationGeneralDetails
1868BealeOpposed germ theory on ground that microbes may be found in the lungs and intestiines of healthy people.WallerMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1868ChauveauPresented evidence for the particulate nature of the cowpox agent.HowardCausationVirusesDetails
1868HueterSaw microbes in sepsis.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1868KeberDemonstrated the infectivity of vaccinia lymph after filtration, and observed objects of extremely small size.Anon.CausationVirusesDetails
1868ObermeierDiscovered spirochaete of relapsing fever.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1868OertelSaw microbes in diphtheria.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1868TommasiWith Hueter, implicated microbes in diphtheria.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1868VilleminPublished his evidence for the inoculability of tuberculosis.LechevalierCausationBacteriaDetails
1868WuchererReported the presence of filarial larvae in human urine.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1868WunderlichReported on significance of temperature in disease.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1869Drognat-LandrePublished non-microbiological evidence for infectious nature of leprosy.HarboeCausationBacteriaDetails
1869FedchenkoObserved Dracunculus larvae in crustacean host.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1869GamgeeMade erroneous pronouncement re babesiosis.Anon.CausationProtozoaDetails
1869Hoffmana. Used potato as solid medium for cultivation of microbes.GarrisonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1869Hoffmanb. Reported use of vegetable dye (carmine) to stain bacteria.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1869HuterSaw bacteria in fluid squeezed from a puncture in erysipelatous skin.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1869KlebsIntroduced hard paraffin (paraffin wax) for embedding objects in preparation for sectioning and microscopic examination.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1869OliverDid experiments (reported in 1870) suggesting that Taenia saginata is acquired by eating measly beef.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1869PasteurReported two enteric ferments associated with the silkworm disease flacherie.CarterCausationGeneralDetails
1869SalisburyMade insupportable claim that measles, typhoid and malaria were caused by fungi.WallerCausationFungiDetails
1869TrendelburgReported experimental infection of rabbits with diphtheria.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1870CramerReported that granules in Beggiatoa are made of sulfur.DoetschMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1870FedchenkoReported the transmission of a nematode parasite (Dracunculus) by ingestion of an infected crustacean (Cyclops).GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1870KlebsIntroduced use of unglazed clay cells, connected to air pump, for filtering out bacteria.WatersonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1870LanghansReported erythrocytes inside leucocytes around hemorrhagic foci.Anon.ImmunologyGeneralDetails
1870LewisSaw amebae in cholera stools, and recognized that they were not the causative agent.FosterMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1870NassiloffSaw microbes in diphtheria.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1870Pasteura. Published major book on silkworm diseases.CarterCausationGeneralDetails
1870SandersonConfirmed Chauveau's evidence for the particulate nature of the cowpox agent.Anon.CausationVirusesDetails
1870WingeSaw microbes in endocarditis.BullockMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1871BastianReported his strong opposition to the germ theory of disease.WorboysMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1871HansenSaw rod-shaped microbe in leprosy.LongCausationBacteriaDetails
1871KlebsFound that anthrax germs could be removed from a solution by filter.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1871OertelInfected rabbits with diphtheria by injecting tissue from human false membrane into trachea.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1871PasteurBegan investigations on the fermentation responsible for the production of beer.GeisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1871RecklinghausenImplicated microbes in sepsis.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1871TiegelReported result of filtering anthrax blood through plaster of Paris.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1871WeigertStained bacteria with carmine.GarrisonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1872Birch-HirschfeldReported that cocci injected into the bloodstream may be engulfed by leucocytes.Anon.ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1872CohnPublished book on bacteria, one of his many contributions to bacteriology.DoetschMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1872CohnSaw microbes in sepsis.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1872CozeWith Feltz, published summary of work on bacteria and putrid blood.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1872DavaineReported studies on septicemia and putrefaction.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1872EberthAdded to Davaine's already strong evidence for the bacterial causation of anthrax.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1872EberthSaw microbes in diphtheria.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1872EberthSaw microbes in endocarditis.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1872HeibergSaw microbes in endocarditis.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1872LewisReported the presence of filarial larvae in human blood.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1872SchroeterReported his studies on the occurrence of pure cultures of microbes on the cut surface of boiled potatoes.BrockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1872VulpianSupported findings of Davaine and suggested that septicemia could be called bacteremia.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1872WaldeyerMicrobes in endocarditis.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1873Abbea. Published new theoretical basis for image formation in microscopy. Introduced concept of numerical aperture.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1873Abbeb. Developed a two-lens condenser ("illuminator") for use with his objectives.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1873BuddRecognized contagious nature of typhoid fever, and proposed, on epidemiological grounds, a microbiological causation.CirilloCausationBacteriaDetails
1873DavaineReported the antiseptic property of iodine and other chemicals.GeisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1873HansenSaw microbes in lymph nodes of leprosy cases.BirchCausationBacteriaDetails
1873Klebsa. Saw microbes in sepsis.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1873Klebsb. Tried (successfully?) to induce tuberculosis in animals by injecton of milk.EvansCausationBacteriaDetails
1873KlebsDescribed a germ, Microsporon diphtheriticum, as causative agent of diphtheria.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1873KochBegan work on anthrax; saw rods in sheep blood and evidence of spore formation.BrockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1873LoeschDescribed Entamoeba histolytica.FosterCausationProtozoaDetails
1873MullerSuggested that bacteria, in nature, may convert ammonia to nitric acid.DoetschMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1873MurchisonTraced a London typhoid outbreak to polluted milk, but did not accept germ theory of infection.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1873ObermeierObserved spirochaete of relapsing fever.NormanCausationBacteriaDetails
1873RivoltaReported an organism in lesions of horses, and named it Cryptococcus farciminosum.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1873ThaonWith Grancher, supported findings of Villemin concerning transmissibility of tuberculosis.NormanCausationBacteriaDetails
1873TollesDesigned and made a homogeneous immersion system.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1874Anon.Vaccinaton of infants against smallpox made a legal reguirement in Germany.SchreiberImmunologyVirusesDetails
1874CohnDescribed what would now be called actinomycosis, in the lachrymal canal.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1874HansenReported observation of a bacterium in leprosy.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1874JurgensenArgued that lobar pneumonia is infectious and caused by a specific agent as with typhoid.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1874PanumSuggested that leucocytes played role in the body's defense against bacteria.Anon.ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1874PasteurArgued that putrefaction was microbe-induced.CarterCausationGeneralDetails
1874RobertsNoted that "most observers" recognized that the air carries large numbers of fungal spores.Anon.MiscellanyFungiDetails
1874RobertsReported observations on antagonism between bacteria and microscopic fungi such as Penicillium glaucum.LechevalierMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1875Anon.At meetings of the Pathological Society of London, the germ theory of disease was hotly debated.FosterMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1875Anon.Introduced "differentiation" to the staining of tissues.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1875BrauellObserved anthrax bacillus in human.SchwabeCausationBacteriaDetails
1875EberthFound bacteria on surface of human skin and in sweat glands and hair follicles.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1875FeserFound bacteria in cattle blackleg.StalheimCausationBacteriaDetails
1875KelschSaw malarial pigment in clear protoplasmic bodies as well as in leucocytes; did not recognize these bodies as parasites.HarrisonMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1875KlebsReported inconclusive evidence of the microbial causation of pneumonia.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1875KochDeveloped method for culture of anthrax bacilli, and observed complete spore formation.BrockCausationBacteriaDetails
1875LoschReported amebae as almost certain cause of severe dysentery in a human.AckerknechtCausationProtozoaDetails
1875McConnellReported a new trematode, Clonorchis (Asiatic liver fluke) and described its pathogenicity.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1875O'NeillReported microfilariae (of Onchocerca) in human skin.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1875PasteurClaimed that ammoniacal urine was the result of microbial action.CarterMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1875RokitanskyWas first to show bacteria in lesions of endocarditis.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1875SchroterUsed potato as solid medium, and identified bacteria by characteristics of culture.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1875WeigertPublished comprehensive analysis of the nature of bacteria.BullockCausationGeneralDetails
1875WeigertStained bacteria with aniline dye, "methyl violet."LongMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1876Anon.Exhibited the latest advances in the design of microscopes.RichardsMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1876BancroftFound adult Wuchereria bancrofti in a lymphatic abscess and in hydrocoel in a human.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1876BauschBegan factory production methods for microscopes.RichardsMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1876BollingerRecognized infectious nature of actinomycosis.RipponCausationBacteriaDetails
1876CohnFound heat-resistant spore of Bacillus subtilis (published in following year).GarrisonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1876CohnPublished major study of heat in the sterilization of various liquids and solids.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1876FuerbringerReported that the fungus Mucor was an agent of pulmonary disease in humans.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1876KlebsPublished comprehensive theory of the bacterial causation of disease.Carter (see Notes)CausationBacteriaDetails
1876Kocha. Asserted bacterial causation of anthrax and demonstrated evidence in public.NormanCausationBacteriaDetails
1876Kochb. Reported bacteria in local lymph cells of frog after implantation of infected tissue.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1876Kochc. Used hanging drop method for study of anthrax bacillus.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1876Kochd. Introduced the use of the white mouse as a laboratory animal.Brock 1999MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1876KrishnaswamiWith Whitmore, described a bacillus in melioidosis.LeeMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1876NormandReported Strongyloides (Anguillula) stercoralis as a new nematode parasite of humans.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1876Pasteura. Cultured an organism and used its "ferment" to make urine ammoniacal.CarterCausationGeneralDetails
1876Pasteurb. Published book on the role of microbes in production of beer.LechevalierMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1876Pasteurc. Sterilization by heat at 115 - 120 C under pressure.CollardMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1876SalomonsenIntroduced a capillary-tube method for isolating bacteria from putrefying blood.DoetschMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1876Tyndalla. Reported antagonism between a mold (Penicillium) and bacteria in vitro.LechevalierMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1876Tyndallb. Produced experimental evidence for the transport of microbes by airborne particles.WallerMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1876WeigertSaw microbes in sepsis.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1877BertReported evidence allegedly refuting Koch's claim that anthrax was caused by a bacterium.HowardCausationBacteriaDetails
1877BilrothIntroduced term "streptococcus."FosterMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1877BurrillReported micro-organisms as possible agents of disease in plants.DoetschCausationBacteriaDetails
1877CohnReported that the hay bacillus has a heat-resistant spore form.Brock (1961)MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1877HarzDescribed actinomycosis in cattle.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1877Kocha. Published powerful evidence of the bacterial causation of anthrax, and described life cycle of the responsible bacillus.Brock (1961)CausationBacteriaDetails
1877Kochb. Published the first photomicrographs of bacteria.BrockMicroscopyBacteriaDetails
1877Kochc. Used water-immersion lens to study bacteria.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1877Kochd. Made dry films of bacteria and stained them with methylene blue.BrockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1877Pasteura. Reported microbial causation of anthrax.CarterCausationBacteriaDetails
1877Pasteurb. Reported that the anthrax bacillus was infective to guinea-pigs even when grown for many generations in the absence of blood.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1877Pasteurc. With Joubert, reported apparent bacterial antagonism.LechevalierMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1877PowellWith Lealand, made water-immersion objective of 1/8" focus and numerical aperture of 1.26.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1877SchloesingWith Muntz, demonstrated that nitrate in soil was produced by "nitrifying" micro-organisms.DoetschMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1877TyndallReported that bacteria must have a heat-resistant form.BrockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1878GrassiWith Parona, described life cycle of Strongyloides stercoralis.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1878GrassiWith Parona, reported that hookworm infections could be diagnosed in living patients by detection of eggs in fecal examination.NormanMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1878IsraelWith Ponfick, described in humans what would be called actinomycosis, and isolated the agent.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1878KochPublished evidence of bacterial causation of wound infections in various animals.BrockCausationBacteriaDetails
1878LewisFound trypanosomes in blood of rat.FosterCausationProtozoaDetails
1878ListerReported detailed study of lactic fermentation in the souring of milk.DoetschMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1878MansonReported first insect vector of a human disease.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1878Pasteura. Confirmed microorganisms as cause of flacherie in silkworms.CarterCausationGeneralDetails
1878Pasteurb. Described an anaerobic organism associated with putrid material and causing septicemia in animals.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1878PerroncitoDescribed agent of fowl cholera (later Pasteurella multocida).Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1878PettenkoferAppointed, while unsupportive of germ theory, to a chair of hygiene at Munich.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1878Powell and LealandWith Lealand, improved on the achromatic condenser lenses that they had been making for some years.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1878SedillotCoined the word "microbe" in discussing Pasteur's work.LechevalierMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1878StephensonPublished proposal for homogeneous immersion.FordMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1878ToussaintExtended Perroncito's work on the agent of fowl cholera (later Pasteurella septica); sent agent to Pasteur.GeisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1879AbbeAdvocated use of homogeneous immersion system.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1879AfanasievSuggested that malaria is caused by black pigment seen in the tissues of victims, perhaps of protozoal origin.Bruce-ChwattCausationProtozoaDetails
1879Anon.Clarified "sepsis" and "pyaemia."BullockMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1879Anon.Reported that most physicians had given up belief in Spontaneous Generation even before Pasteur's experiments.CarterMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1879BurrillReported further evidence of microbial nature of disease in plants.DoetschCausationBacteriaDetails
1879GaltierReported transmission of rabies from dogs to rabbits.GeisonMiscellanyVirusesDetails
1879KlebsInoculated syphilis into apes and probably saw the spirochaete.NormanCausationBacteriaDetails
1879KochPublished classic paper on the "etiology of traumatic infective diseases."BrockCausationBacteriaDetails
1879LawPublished Lung Plague, describing pleuropneumonia in cattle in U.S.A.StalheimMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1879LeberReported a case of mycotic keratitis, and described the organism in the cornea as Aspergillus.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1879MansonDescribed fungal agent of a tropical ringworm.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1879NeisserExtended Hansen's 1874 observations on germs in leprosy.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1879NeisserReported a micro-organism clearly associated with gonorrhea.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1879PasteurIsolated pathogenic staphylococci and streptococci.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1880AbbeDesigned binocular microscope.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1880Anon.Oil-immersion objectives took over from water-immersion objectives for the most demanding microscopical work.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1880CohnheimReported tuberculosis in rabbit eye following inoculation.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1880Ebertha. Described germs in pneumonia.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1880Eberthb. With Gaffky, reported bacillus as causative organism of typhoid fever.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1880EvansDescribed the trypanosome agent of surra in horses.FosterCausationProtozoaDetails
1880EwartSaid in lecture that leucocytes (and kidney) attacked inoculated anthrax bacilli in animals.Anon.ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1880FowlerReported a clinical correlation between tonsillitis and subsequent rheumatic fever.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1880Kocha. Reported role of specific bacteria in the etiology of particular dieeases (wound infections, sepsis and others).Brock (1961)CausationBacteriaDetails
1880Kochb. Discovered delayed hypersensitivity (cell-mediated immunity) in tuberculosis.BellantiImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1880LaveranDiscovered agent (Plasmodium) of malaria.FosterCausationProtozoaDetails
1880MansonPublished further evidence of the mosquito as vector of filariasis.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1880Pasteura. Reported immunization by attenuation of a bacterium -- the agent of fowl cholera.GeisonImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1880Pasteurb. Reported germs responsible for boils and puerperal fever.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1880Pasteurc. Observed agent of lobar pneumonia.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1880Toussainta. Reported immunization of cattle against anthrax by filtered-heated blood.FosterImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1880Toussaintb. Reported immunization against anthrax by chemically attenuated germs.GeisonImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1881AufrechtProbably saw tuberculosis bacillus.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1881BechampStarted publishing concept of microzymas.Anon.CausationGeneralDetails
1881BraunInfected dogs with Diphyllobothrium by feeding plerocercoid larvae from fish.Anon.CausationHelminthsDetails
1881EhrlichReported the utility of the basic dye, methylene blue, for staining acid-fast bacteria.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1881FinlayPresented paper on his hypothesis that Yellow Fever is transmitted by mosquitoes.Anon.CausationVirusesDetails
1881Galtiera. Reported rabies transmission from dogs to guinea-pigs.FosterCausationVirusesDetails
1881Galtierb. Reported immunization of sheep vs. rabies by injection of saliva of rabid dogs.GeisonImmunologyVirusesDetails
1881Kocha. Published landmark paper on bacteriological methods, including solid medium for pure culture.Brock (1961)MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1881Kochb. With Gaffky and Loeffler: reported data that served as basis for successful autoclave procedures.BrockMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1881LoefflerPublished formula for "nutrient broth."Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1881OgstonReported cluster-forming germ as agent of septic abscess.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1881Pasteura. Reported immunization against anthrax by attenuated bacteria.GeisonImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1881Pasteurb. Carried out his famous public demonstration of anthrax vaccination.FosterImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1881Pasteurc. Published reports on a germ that was probably the diplococcus of pneumonia.SternbergCausationBacteriaDetails
1881Pasteurd. Reported transmission of rabies by intracranial inoculation of brain tissue.GeisonCausationVirusesDetails
1881SternbergPublished studies on a germ from human saliva that caused septicemia in rabbits.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1881TappeinerTransmitted tuberculosis from human to dog by inhalation.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1881WaringtonConfirmed nitrification by soil bacteria.DoetschMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1882BaumgartenReported discovery of a bacillus in unstained tuberculosis tissue.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1882BraunInfected humans with Diphyllobothrium by feeding them plerocercoid larvae from fish.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1882EhrlichReported an improved method for staining the tubercle bacillus (and other acid-fact bacteria).BrockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1882FriedlanderReported diplococci (pneumococci) in large numbers in lung sections taken at autopsy in cases of pneumonia.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1882HesseIntroduced agar as solidifying agent for culture of bacteria.BrockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1882Kocha. Reported discovery of the tuberculosis bacillus.LechevalierCausationBacteriaDetails
1882Kochb. Reported, as an incidental remark, the value of agar in bacteriological media.BrockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1882Kochc. Used heat to get methylene blue into waxy envelope of tubercle bacilli so as to stain them.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1882LeuckartReported Fasciola in snail intermediate host, Lymnaea truncatula.FosterCausationHelminthsDetails
1882LoefflerWith Schultz, isolated agent of glanders (later named Actinobacillus).LechevalierCausationBacteriaDetails
1882MetchnikoffReported the phenomenon of phagocytosis.Silverstein.ImmunologyGeneralDetails
1882OgstonIntroduced name Staphylococcus for germ found in clusters, like bunches of grapes.BrockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1882Pasteura. Reported transmission of rabies by intravenous, rather than intracranial, inoculation.GeisonMiscellanyVirusesDetails
1882Pasteurb. Reported that some dogs could survive rabies and become immune to subsequent challenge.GeisonImmunologyVirusesDetails
1882Pasteurc. With Thuillier, reported agent of swine erysipelas.BullockCausationBacteriaDetails
1882TalamonReported at a meeting, the presence of diplococci in the lungs of pneumonia cases.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1882ThomasReported Fasciola in snail intermediate host (Lymnaea truncatula).FosterCausationHelminthsDetails
1882ThuillerDemonstrated to German observers the effectiveness of Pasture's anthrax vaccine.BrockImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1882ZiehlUsed phenol (instead of Ehrlich's aniline water) with methyl violet for staining tubercle bacilli.BrockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1883FehleisenReported the causative agent of erysipelas, a chain-forming coccus.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1883GarreProved infectivity of Staphylococcus pyogenes for humans.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1883KlebsReported bacilli in the false membrane of diphtheria.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1883KochDiscovered and cultured agent of cholera; confirmed and reported in the following year.BrockCausationBacteriaDetails
1883KochObserved ameboid parasites in sections of intestinal ulcer and hepatic abscess.FosterCausationProtozoaDetails
1883LoefflerPublished firstl statement of Koch's Postulates, as guide to the establishment of disease causation by a mibroorganism.BrockCausationBacteriaDetails
1883NeelsenModified Ziehl's method of staining tubercle bacilli.BrockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1883Pasteura. With Thuillier, reported that passage of swine-fever microbe through rabbits decreased its virulence for swine.BullockMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1883ThuillierDied of cholera in Egypt while trying to discover its cause.LechevalierMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1883WakkerReported the bacterial causation of Yellow Disease in hyacinths.LechevalierCausationBacteriaDetails
1884Anon.Campaign begun to control bovine pleuropneumonia in USA.StalheimMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1884Anon.Introduced first commercial autoclaves.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1884ChamberlandDescribed candle-shaped porcelain filter for ridding drinking water of microbes.LechevalierMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1884FinklerWith Prior, reported the presence of comma shaped bacteria in feces of patients with diarrhea (not cholera).Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1884FraenkelDiscovered agent of pneumonia.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1884GaffkyReported confirmation of Eberth's claim for bacillus as germ of typhoid.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1884GerhardtTransmitted malaria by injectionJaramilloCausationProtozoaDetails
1884GramReported improved stain for bacteria.Brock (1961)MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1884KitasatoReported confirmation of "Nicolaier's Bacillus" as causative agent of tetanus.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1884KleinMay have swallowed cholera bacteria to test causation of disease.WallerCausationBacteriaDetails
1884Kocha. Published "Koch's Postulates" governing the proof of disease causation.BrockCausationGeneralDetails
1884Kochb. Reported that chlorine, bromine and mercuric chloride were good disinfectants.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1884Kochc. Published 88-page work "The Etiology of Tuberculosis," expanding the demonstration of 1882.BrockCausationBacteriaDetails
1884Kochd. Reported discovery of the causative agent of cholera (now Vibrio cholerae) and its growth in pure culture.BrockCausationBacteriaDetails
1884LandouzyRecognized infectious nature of herpes zoster.LeeCausationVirusesDetails
1884LichtheimReported experimental infection of rabbits with Mucor spp.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1884Loefflera. Developed alkaline methylene blue as stain for bacteria.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1884Loefflerb. Reported agent of diphtheria.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1884Loefflerc. Found agent of hog cholera.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1884Loefflerd. Reported probable causation of scarlet fever by streptococcal germs.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1884Metchnikoffa. Reported phagocytosis in Daphnia.BibelImmunologyFungiDetails
1884Metchnikoffb. Reported phagocytosis in anthrax, and promoted cellular theory of immunity.SilversteinImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1884NicolaierReported causative agent (bacillus) of tetanus.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1884Pasteura. Reported attenuation of rabies by passage in monkeys.GeisonImmunologyVirusesDetails
1884Pasteurb. Vaccinated dogs against rabies.Anon.ImmunologyVirusesDetails
1884RosenbachIsolated staphylococci in pure culture from wounds.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1884WeeksWith Koch, discovered the bacillus of pink-eye, later named Haemophilus aegyptius.LeeCausationBacteriaDetails
1885ArthurProvided final proof of bacterial causation of plant disease.DoetschCausationBacteriaDetails
1885BabesWith Cornil, reported antagonism between different species of bacteria, and speculated about therapeutic value.CollardMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1885BunnReported that cultures of Neisser's gonococcus cause gonorrhea.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1885CantiniAttempted to exploit bacterial antagonism in the treatment of human disease.LechevalierMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1885CarrionBy self-inoculation demonstrated infectiousnes of verruga peruana, and its link to Oroya Fever (bartonellosis).KnoblochCausationBacteriaDetails
1885EscherichDiscovered the enteric bacterium later known as Escherichia coli.FriedmannMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1885FerranAttempted to control a cholera epidemic with an attenuated vaccine.FosterImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1885HansenAdvocated seclusion of lepers, in Norway.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1885KitasatoMade first pure culture of tetanus bacillus.LechevalierCausationBacteriaDetails
1885LoefflerWith Frosch, found cause of foot-and-mouth disease.LechevalierCausationGeneralDetails
1885MayerDemonstrated the contagiousness of tobacco mosaic disease.LechevalierCausationVirusesDetails
1885MillardetReported protective effect of Bordeaux Mixture (copper sulfate and lime) against mildew, Plasmopara viticola, of grapes.Anon.MiscellanyFungiDetails
1885OslerSuggested role of bacteria in rheumatic fever.Lee.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1885PaltaufReported disseminated fungal infection (mucor mycosis) in a human.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1885Pasteura. Tested a "therapeutic" rabies vaccine in humans with clinical rabies, obtaining equivocal results that were never reported.GeisonImmunologyVirusesDetails
1885Pasteurb. Conducted (and reported) trials of "therapeutic" rabies vaccine in humans during presumptive prepatent period of disease.GeisonImmunologyVirusesDetails
1885PowerWith Klein, reported that an outbreak of scarlet fever was caused by milk-borne streptococci.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1885RouxWith Yersin, first described antitoxins.BellantiImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1885SalmonIsolated enteric pathogen from swine.NormanCausationBacteriaDetails
1886AbbeIntroduced apochromatic objectives.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1886BergmannIntroduced steam sterilization.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1886BuistReported that he had seen and measured viral elementary bodies in lymph taken from a cowpox inoculation ulcer.WilliamsCausationVirusesDetails
1886CalandruccioInfected himself with Trichuris (whipworm) by ingesting eggs.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1886EscherichPublished monograph on micro-organisms of the normal intestine.GarrisonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1886FraenkelConfirmed pneumococcus as cause of lobar pneumonia and as the salivary germ known to cause septicemia in rabbits.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1886GolgiDescribed 2 species of the parasite (Plasmodium) that causes human malaria.Bruce-ChwattMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1886LeichtensternInfected humans with hookworm by giving larvae orally.FosterMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1886LindtExtended the work of Lichtheim showing additional species of Mucor to be pathogenic to rabbits.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1886RossReported (per Manson) that early development of human malaria parasite occurred rapidly in stomach of mosquito.FosterCausationProtozoaDetails
1886SalmonWith Smith, reported successful immunization of pigeons against Salmonella by injecting them with heat-killed Salmonella.LechevalierImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1886WeichselbaumReported that pneumonia could be caused by more than one kind of germ.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1887ArloingWith Cornevin Thomas, showed inoculability of blackleg in cattle.StalheimCausationBacteriaDetails
1887BristowePublished major medical textbook, fully accepting the germ theory.BynumMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1887BruceReported isolation of a micrococcus from cases of Malta Fever (undulant fever, brucellosis).GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1887ChantemesseWith Widal, published first differential media.CollardMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1887GarreReported that a product of Pseudomonas inhibited growth of other bacteria.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1887HlavaConfirmed Entamoeba histolytica as cause of dysentery.ImperatoCausationProtozoaDetails
1887KartulisReported amebae in pus from liver abscess, confirming their suspected role in pathogenesis.FosterCausationProtozoaDetails
1887LoefflerReported immunity in guinea pigs that had survived experimental diphtheria infection.FosterImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1887LoefflerWrote more-or-less contemporaneous review of history of bacteriology up to 1878.HowardMiscellanyN.A.Details
1887PetriDescribed a dish particularly suited to Koch's new method of plating bacteria on solid media.NormanMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1887WeichelsbaumIsolated a bacterium (coccus) form patients with meningitis.LeeMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1887WeichselbaumReported novel type of bacterium in post-mortum material from the brains of cases of cerebrospinal meningitis.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1887WinogradskyReported the metabolism of sulfur by Beggiatoa and other "sulfur bacteria."Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1888AbbeIntroduced superior achromatic condenser.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1888Anon.Pasteur Institute was opened in Paris, reflecting triumph of Pasteur -- and the germ theory.GeisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1888BabesReported a parasite in erythrocytes of cattle with disease (babesiosis).FosterCausationProtozoaDetails
1888BeijerinckReported nitrogen-fixing bacteria in legumes.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1888BriegerIsolated microbial toxins.GarrisonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1888BruceReported experimental infection of monkey with Micrococcus (now Brucella abortus).Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1888ChantemmesseIsolated bacillus of dysentery.LeeMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1888GaertnerIsolated and named Bacillus enteritidis (later Salmonella enteritidis) from an outbreak of gastro-enteritis.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1888GamaleiaDiscovered agent of fibrinous pneumonia.Garrison.CausationBacteriaDetails
1888MajimaDescribed disease of human liver associated with eggs later shown to be schistosome eggs.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1888NocardReported that farcin de boeuf in cattle is caused by an anaerobic actinomycete.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1888NuttallReported that anthrax bacilli, if not too numerous, are killed by normal serum (from non-immune animals).LechevalierImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1888PasteurProposed deliberate microbial dissemination for control of rabbit populations.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1888RouxWith Yersin, reported that the Klebs-Loeffler bacillus of diphtheria produced a toxin.SilversteinImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1889AbbeProduced (at Zeiss) an objective with the highest numerical aperture ever achieved: 1.63.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1889BaillonGave name Malassezia furfur to fungal agent of pityriasis versicolor and separated it from ringworm.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1889BehringStudied antiseptic iodoform.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1889BuchnerConfirmed Nuttall's report of the germicidal action of normal (non-immune) serum.GarrisonImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1889CelliWith Marchiafava, described the agent of malignant tertian malaria, Plasmodium falciparum..Bruce-ChwattMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1889CharrinWith Roger, reported first evidence of specific antibacterial substance in serum of immune animals.Anon.ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1889DanilewskiDescribed morphology and distribution of malarial parasites of birds.Bruce-ChwattMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1889DucreyReported agent of soft chancre (chancroid).AckermanCausationBacteriaDetails
1889GrassiWith Rovelli, reported flea as intermediate host for Dipylidium caninum.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1889KilborneInitiated trials in cattle to test cattlemen's belief in ticks as source of Texas Fever (babesiosis).MaloneCausationProtozoaDetails
1889KitasatoReported that tetanus is caused by Nicolaier's club-shaped, spore-forming bacillus.Brock 1999.CausationBacteriaDetails
1889KitasatoReported utility of indole production in differentiating between bacterial species..CollardMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1889KitasatoWhile working in Koch's laboratory, discovered the susceptibility of the mouse to tetanus..Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1889LoefflerIsolated from sick laboratory mice the germ later known as Salmonella typhimurium.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1889PfeifferUsed cross-immunization of guinea pigs with two similar species of bacteria to show specificity of immune response.LechevalierImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1889SmithObserved intra-erythrocytic protozoan parasites in a case of Texas Cattle Fever.FosterCausationProtozoaDetails
1889WinogradskiReported that some bacteria (autotrophs) can grow in medium containing only carbon dioxide and inorganic salts.LechevalierMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1890AbbeReported technique for the use of fluorite in microscope lenses.BradburyMicroscopyGeneralDetails
1890Anon.Initiated a program to eradicate hydatidosis from Iceland.Anon.MiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1890Behringa. Reported, with Kitasato, first evidence that infection (tetanus) resulted in the presence in serum of substances capable of neutralizing foreign materials.Brock (1961)ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1890Behringb. Reported evidence that diphtheria (like tetanus) induces protective antibodies (antitoxin) in lab animals.Brock (1961)ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1890GaspariniReported antagonism between various actinomycetes.LechevalierMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1890HalstedIntroduced rubber gloves in surgical operations, though not to prevent transmission of germs.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1890KochAnnounced, at a congress, his discovery of a substance capable of stopping the progress of tuberculosis in animals.BrockImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1890LoefflerDeveloped method of staining bacterial flagella.LechevalierMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1890MaffucciIsolated avian tubercle bacillus Bacillus gallinaceous.LeeCausationBacteriaDetails
1890RadamSelf-published a book on cure of diseases by killing microbes (undisclosed method).CampbellMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1890SmithIntroduced apparatus for visual observation of gas production during fermentation.CollardMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1890WinogradskyIsolated nitrifying bacteria from soil, confirming and extending work of others in a very significant way.DoetschMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1891CerqueiraDescribed tinea nigra as a keratomycosis, thus noting its fungal etiology.RipponCausationFungiDetails
1891CouncilmanWith Lafleur, described the detailed pathogenesis of dysentery and liver abscess caused by Entamoeba histolytica.FosterCausationProtozoaDetails
1891Ehrlicha. Reported methylene blue effective against malaria in humans.LechevalierMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1891Ehrlichb. Distinguished between active and passive immunization.Anon.ImmunologyGeneralDetails
1891Ehrlichc. Showed that even plant poisons elicit antitoxins.Anon.ImmunologyGeneralDetails
1891GeisslerWith Wernicke, allegedly treated a diphtheria patient with antiserum (successfully).CollardImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1891KlempererReported the production of a pneumococcal antiserum in rabbits and its trial in six humans.Anon.ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1891KochPubllished hitherto secret compositon of tuberculin.BrockImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1891ListerArranged a symposium on bacterial immunity.FosterImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1891TizzoniWith Cattani, described tetanus antitoxin as a substance, and introduced term antitossina (= antitoxin).BibelImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1891WertheimConclusively confirmed Neisser's gonococcus as agent of gonorrhea, and infected five men experimentally.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1891WolffWith Isreal, grew fungus of actinomycosis.BullockCausationFungiDetails
1892Anon.Diphtheria antitoxin was first produced on a commercial scale (in Germany).Anon.ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1892Anon.Eradicated bovine pleuropneumonia in U.S.A.MaloneMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1892BehringReported, with Wernicke, the ability of antitoxin to treat diphtheria in lab animals.BrockImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1892DoderleinDescribed Doderlein bacillus in vaginal secretions in cases of puerperal fever.LeeMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1892FlickStarted Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Tuberculosis.ChowderMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1892IwanowskiReported that sap of plant with tobacco mosaic disease was infective even after bacteriological filtration.LechevalierCausationVirusesDetails
1892KochDemonstrated the value of water filtration in the control of cholera.BrockMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1892PettenkoferSwallowed cholera bacteria in attempt to show that it was not a sufficient cause of disease.MagnerCausationBacteriaDetails
1892PfeifferIsolated Hemophilus influenza (an agent of bacterial pneumonia).GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1892PosadasDiscovered agent of coccidiodomycocis, later named Coccidoides immitis.LeeCausationFungiDetails
1892RouxWith Nocard, began production of diphtheria antitoxin.LechevalierImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1892SabouraudPublished first of his historic studies on dermatophytes as agents of ringworm.AinsworthCausationFungiDetails
1892SmithWith Kilborne, published note on a microbial disease transmitted by arthropods.KatzCausationProtozoaDetails
1892UnnaDescribed the different fungi of favus.NormanCausationFungiDetails
1892WelchReported discovery of the bacterial agent of gas gangrene.AckermannCausationBacteriaDetails
1892WurtzUsed pH indicators in bacteriological media.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1893BehringDeveloped, with Ehrlich's help, a practical and effective antitoxin for diphtheria.BrockImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1893BergReported association between scarlet fever and streptococci and toxin.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1893BuchnerReported that serum does not kill bacteria if it is heated to 56¡C.SilversteinImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1893EscherichContributed to the development of a serological test for diphtheria.FriedmannImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1893HaffkineUsed an attenuated vaccine to control cholera in India.BibelImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1893KohlerReported improved method of illumination for use in photomicrography.Anon.MicroscopyGeneralDetails
1893LeuckartReported (per Manson) the presence of adult worms (Onchocerca) in subcutaneous nodules of human.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1893SmithReported a bacillus (later Erwinia) tracheiphilus) as cause of wilt disease in cucumbers.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1893SmithWith Kilborne, issued classic report on Texas Cattle Fever (babesiosis) including vector transmission.FosterCausationProtozoaDetails
1894Anon.Built first cattle dipping vat in USA, for control of mites and, later, the tick vector of protozoan parasite.MaloneMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1894BusseReported isolation of a yeast (later Cryptococcus) from patient.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1894DurhamWith Grunbaum, discovered agglutination of Eberth-Gaffky bacilli only in serum of typhoid patients, supporting the alleged causation of typhoid by the bacilli.WallerCausationBacteriaDetails
1894ErmengemDiscovered Bacillus botulinus, agent of botulism.AckerknechtCausationBacteriaDetails
1894FischerShowed that bacteria have a cell wall as well as a cell membrane.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1894GilchristReported a new skin disease caused by a yeast, later named Blastomyces dermatididis.GarrisonCausationFungiDetails
1894GruberObserved, according to his own later account, the agglutination of cholera germs by antiserum.LechevalierImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1894KitasatoIsolated bacterial agent of plague (Yersinia pestis).AckerknechtCausationBacteriaDetails
1894MansonPublished theory of malaria transmission by mosquito.KeanMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1894MigulaPublished important new classification of bacteria, but used only morphological characteristics (and motility).GarrisonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1894PfeifferEucidated action of complement and antibody in cell lysis.Bellanti.ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1894PfeifferWith Isayev, reported that cholera germs die in peritoneal cavity of immune, but not in normal, guinea-pig.NormanImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1894RouxIssued influential report on diphtheria antitoxin.Anon.ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1894RouxWith Martin, started producing antitoxin by immunizing horses instead of guinea pigs or sheep.Anon.ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1894VincentDescribed organism in lesions of Madura Foot.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1894YersinReported bacillus responsible for plague (Yersinia pestis).LechevalierCausationBacteriaDetails
1895Anon.Diphtheria antitoxin was used strategically on a community basis.Anon.ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1895BordetReported discovery of complement.Brock (1961)ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1895BruceReported the tsetse fly as vector of the trypanosome that causes nagana in horses.FosterCausationBacteriaDetails
1895DanielssenContinued to believe, until his death in this year, that leprosy is hereditary.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1895DenysWith Leclef, showed that serum of an immunized animal enhanced the activity of phagocytes against the germs used as immunogens.Anon.ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1895JagerConfirmed the presence of Diplococcus in meningitis.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1895KlebergBegan dipping cattle in phenolic baths to eradicate tick vector of bovine babesiosis.RoncalliMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1895MarmorekReported the production of a streptococcal antiserum in horses.Anon.ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1895MetchinikoffReported the clumping of cholera germs when guinea-pig exudate was added to cholera-immune serum in which germs were present.LechevalierImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1895SmithReported causative agent of infectious enterohepatitis (Blackhead) in turkeys.KatzCausationProtozoaDetails
1896CurticeProposed program for eradication of tick vector of cattle babesiosis.RoncalliMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1896DibdinWith Schweder, devised sewage treatment by filtration.GarrisonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1896DurhamPublished note on agglutination of germs by antisera and its diagnostic potential.LechevalierImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1896GosioReported product of Penicillium with antibacterial properties.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1896HankinPostulated a living entity (bacteriophage?) capable of blocking infectivity of cholera germs.MacGregorMiscellanyVirusesDetails
1896HeubnerConfirmed the presence of Diplococcus in meningitis.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1896LehmanWith Neumann, published major new classification of bacteria.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1896MikuliczDevised gauze mask to cover surgeon's nose and mouth to protect patient from germs.RichardsonMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1896MoraxDescribed Morax-Axenfeld bacillus as cause of angular conjunctivitis in human.LeeCausationBacteriaDetails
1896SmithReported bacterial causation of tomato brown rot.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1896WashbournReported exploratory trials of a pneumococcal antiserum in two cases of lobar pneumonia.Anon.ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1896WidalDescribed an agglutination test for the clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever.LechevalierImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1896WrightConducted research on a vaccine against typhoid fever.GarrisonImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1897BangReported the isolation of a small bacterium from the uterus of a cow during an outbreak of epizootic (contagious) abortion.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1897CalmetteBegan collaboration with Guerin that led to BCG vaccine for tuberculosis.LechevalierImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1897DurhamPublished full account of the use of specific agglutination to identify specific bacteria, and to diagnose diseases using patient serum.LechevalierImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1897EhrlichPublished procedures for standardization of diphtheria antitoxin, and proposed a new antigen-antibody theory.SilversteinImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1897HaffkineTested a killed-bacterium vaccine for the prevention of plague.FosterImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1897KrausReported precipitation when immune serum was added to culture of homologous bacteria.SilversteinImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1897KronigWith Paul, published landmark work on disinfectants.Brock (1961)MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1897MacCullumDescribed sexual phase in life-cycle of human and avian malaria.Bruce-ChwattMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1897OgataWith Simond, showed that flea was vector of plague.LeeMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1897PfeifferReported killed-bacteria vaccine for typhoid fever, just one year after Wright's vaccine.LechevalierImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1897RossReported observation of malaria parasite in mosquito that had been fed on an infected human.FosterMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1897SmithReported bacterial causation of black rot of cabbage, and bean blight.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1897TribouletIsolated streptococci from patients with acute rheumatism.LeeMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1897WrightUsed heat-killed typhoid bacilli to vaccinate people against typhoid fever.GarrisonImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1898ArloingIntroduced seroagglutination test for diagnosis of tuberculosis.LeeImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1898Beijerincka. Published ground-breaking report on infectivity of agent of Tobacco Mosaic Disease after bacteriological filtration.WatersonCausationVirusesDetails
1898Beijerinckb. Suggested a link between virus and cancer.Anon.MiscellanyVirusesDetails
1898BelfantiWith Carbone, reported immune hemolysis.SilversteinImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1898BignamiWith others, described life cycle of malaria parasites in humans and mosquitoes.FosterMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1898BordetReported immunological lysis of erythrocytes.BibelImmunologyGeneralDetails
1898CouncilmanWith colleagues, published major report on cerebro-spinal meningitis.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1898Durhama. Reported results of investigating outbreaks of "meat poisoning."Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1898Durhamb. Introduced tubes that could be placed inside test tubes to measure gas produced by bacteria.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1898KochDescribed Theileria parva, agent of East Coast Fever in cattle.Anon.CausationProtozoaDetails
1898LoefflerWith Frosch, reported filterable germ (virus) as agent of animal disease.BrockCausationVirusesDetails
1898LoosReported that hookworm infect host by larval penetration of skin.GroveCausationHelminthsDetails
1898NocardReported that bovine pleuro-pneumonia was caused by a filterable agent, now Mycoplasma mycoides.GarrisonCausationBacteriaDetails
1898PfeifferWith Marx, reported first evidence that antibodies are produced in particular organs.Anon.ImmunologyGeneralDetails
1898RossReported (per Manson) transmission of bird malaria from mosquito to bird and bird to mosquito.FosterMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1898SchenckReported a fungus (resembling a "sporotricha") in a human disease later termed sporotrichosis.GarrisonCausationFungiDetails
1898ShigaReported bacillus as agent of dysentery, naming it Bacillus dysenteriae (now Shigella).LechevalierCausationBacteriaDetails
1898SimondDemonstrated transmission of bubonic plague by flea.GarrisonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1898SmithReported bacterial causation of maize wilt.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1898SmithShowed that human and bovine tubercle bacilli were different strains of the same organism.LechevalierMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1898VincentFound spirochaete in throat of patients with what was later called Vincent's Angina.GarrisonMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1899Anon.Reported an outbreak of microbial "meat poisoning" (salmonellosis) in Belgium.Anon.CausationBacteriaDetails
1899Anon.Reported the start of a war that would, for last time, have more germ-caused than bullet-caused casualties.McNeillMiscellanyGeneralDetails
1899BancroftSuggested transmission of filariasis by bite of mosquito.GroveMiscellanyHelminthsDetails
1899CelliObtained evidence that malaria could be prevented by keeping mosquitos out of dwellings.FosterMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1899DeutschReported that removal of spleen of guinea pigs reduced the level of antibodies in blood.Anon.ImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1899EmmerichWith Low, used by-product of bacterium (Pseudomonas) in attempt to alleviate diphtheria by immune enhancement.CollardImmunologyBacteriaDetails
1899GrassiWith Bignami, reported that human malarial parasistes develop only in Anopheles mosquito.GarrisonMiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1899RogersShowed that tabanid fly was vector of trypanosomiasis (surra) in horses.FosterCausationProtozoaDetails
1899SmithReviewed the literature on bacterial diseases of plants.DoetschCausationBacteriaDetails
1900Anon.The causative agents of 9 human microbial diseases were known.Anon.CausationGeneralDetails
1900DurhamReviewed pathogenic and commensal enteric bacteria.Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1900EhrlichRevised the theoretical basis of immuno-serology.Anon.ImmunologyGeneralDetails
1900HektonWith Perkins, reported isolation of a fungus from a lesion on a human finger.Anon.CausationFungiDetails
1900HunterIntroduced (or popularized) gauze face-mask to minimize wound infection in surgery..Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1900MacConkeyPublished first solid differential medium for microbiology.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1900MansonArranged two demonstrations of the role of anopheline mosquito in malarial transmission.Foster.MiscellanyProtozoaDetails
1900NeubergReported that yeast ferments glucose to make ethanol in a series of biochemical steps.Anon.MiscellanyGeneralDetails
1900ReedHeaded the commission that demonstrated the correctness of Finlay's hypothesis that mosquito was vector of Yellow Fever.LechevalierCausationVirusesDetails
1900ReedWith Vaughan and Shakespeare, reported that people may harbor, and disseminate, the bacillus of typhoid fever without themselves becoming ill.CirilloMiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1900SchottmuellerIntroduced the name Bacillus paratyphosus (later Salmonella paratyphi).Anon.MiscellanyBacteriaDetails
1900WrightBegan to investigate the use of bacterial vaccines, not for prevention, but for cure.FosterImmunologyBacteriaDetails

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